Category: Fabrics p>
A huge range of fabrics is classified according to several criteria: p> in composition; by the method of interlacing; by appointment; according to the season; on finishing.
Page content p> All woven materials on the composition of the fibers are divided into artificial, mixed and natural. The first ones are made exclusively of synthetic materials, the second ones combine natural raw materials and artificial, the third ones are completely woven from natural fibers.
Most often, natural and blended fabrics are used for clothing and household items. The group of materials from natural fibers includes the following types: p> silk; cotton; woolen cotton
The name of the materials may be the same, and the composition of the fabric is completely different. This is due to the fact that the material is often called by the method of weaving, and the same weave is used for all types of raw materials. p>
Consider what are the fabric of natural fibers. p> Silk group
The name of fabrics and their developed characteristics can be seen in our column "From A to Z". It is necessary to distinguish between natural and artificial silk, since this group includes materials not only of pure silk, but also of mixed and fully synthetic raw materials. Moreover, the share of silk from chemical fibers is more than 90%. This is connected not only with the progress in the textile industry, but also with the high price of natural silk. p>
Characteristics of silk fabrics are usually limited to a description of the appearance. The material of silk threads is really very attractive: it glitters and shimmers in the sun, light, soft and pleasant to the touch. In addition, silk has high utilitarian properties: hygroscopicity, low shrinkage, well draped. It is light, elastic and durable matter. p>
The production of silk fabric is a very laborious and costly process, so natural material has a high cost and is highly valued in the market. Silkworm cocoons are the raw material for silk yarn production. First, the caterpillars are grown, which after a few weeks weave cocoons. Then they are dipped in boiling water and carefully unwound. It turns out matte yellow thread. p>
For the manufacture of silk using these types of weaves: p> Satin. The material obtained by such an interlacing, it is also called satin, has a matte inside and a smooth front surface with gloss. The disadvantage is increased flowability and slip when cutting. Atlases and satinas are obtained with various combinations of satin weave. Cloth. This method allows you to adjust the density of the fabric by increasing the number of threads per inch. The more of them, the more dense matter is obtained at the exit. The name of fabrics of plain weave: crepe de chine, georgette, chiffon, toal. Twill. The threads intersect with an asymmetrical shift, therefore a diagonal small hem is clearly visible across the entire front surface. Used for the manufacture of lining materials, body and bed linen. Fine-grained. Derived from the main types of weaving. It gives the material in a hem, diagonal or herringbone. Krupnouzorchatoe. The more famous name of the large-weave fabrics is Jacquard. He is woven on special machines with computer programs. It turns out the matter with relief patterns of various species. Combined. The combination of different types of weave allows you to improve certain qualities of fabric.
For finishing and color design, silk fabrics can be boiled, harsh, one-colored, multicolored, bleached, printed, embossed and mulinated. p>
By appointment, silk is divided into subgroups: dress, lining, furniture and decorative, technical, shirt, costume and blouse. p> Cotton group
The history of cotton fabric has more than one thousand years. During this time, the range of fabrics has expanded to 1000 items. The material received huge distribution for such properties: p> hygroscopicity; low cost; wear resistance; softness; environmental friendliness.
The disadvantages of cotton are a high degree of crushing and shrinkage. To remove these disadvantages, the raw material for the material is applied or combined with other fibers, including synthetic ones. p>
Fabric production begins with the collection of cotton bolls. Cotton is then removed from them. fibers that will be the basis for the threads. The longer the fiber, the better the material will be. Cotton raw materials are cleaned and sorted. Then from them make threads. The density of the fabric depends on the thickness and method of torsion of the threads. p>
Cotton threads are glued to prevent tearing and increase strength. The fabric itself is produced directly in the spinning mill. Most of the species that make up the assortment of cotton fabrics are woven with linen weave and its derivatives. Jacquard, small-patterned and other types of weaves are also used. Initially, the fabric has a white color due to bleaching. After peeling off the glue, the material is dyed or painted, if you want to get a fabric with a print. Then cotton can be further processed. p>
By appointment cotton fabric is divided into household and technical. There are 17 groups of cotton materials: underwear, clothes, towel, shawl, lining, teak, dress, furniture and decorative, nap, blanket, severe fabrics, calico, calico, satin, gauze, packaging and technical fabrics. p>
Calico is made of plain weave. This is a dyed material or fabric with a pattern obtained by the method of printing. p>
Coarse calico - denser and coarser fabric due to the use of thicker threads. Get a plain weave. This type is subjected to a strong dressing to improve resistance to crushability and shrinkage. p>
Satin woven satin or satin weave. The front surface is smooth. These types of tissue often undergo mercerization. This is a chemical treatment of the yarns, which makes them more silky, soft and shiny. p>
The most understandable is the classification of cotton fabrics on a seasonal basis. This is especially true for the dress group. It includes the following types: p> Demi-season. Fabric production is carried out by linen, twill and finely weave. For demi-season materials characterized by a greater weight of fabric, reinforced structure, thickness and strength. The name of the fabrics of this subgroup often coincides with the names of wool fabrics. Demi-season include Scotch, crepe, taffeta, poplin, Garus, wool, pique and others. Summer Most often it is a light fabric of light color. Used weave: plain, jacquard, combined. The range of summer fabrics includes: wreath, cambric, veil, percale and many others. Winter Usually it is a fabric with a nap or ribbed. The napped surface and the increased density of the fabric are obtained by using a pile of weft yarns. This subgroup includes the following names: flannel, bike, paper.
Both thick and thin fabric can be made of cotton thread. A variety of weaves and the use of threads of different thicknesses make it possible to get the softest veil and a warm bike. The name of the fabric often coincides with the names of the materials of silk, wool or linen. p> Wool group
The range of this group includes fabrics made from animal fur. Materials with 100% content of natural raw materials are considered pure wool, but additives of other fibers and yarns of no more than 5% are allowed. The production of fabrics is from sheep, goat and camel wool. p>
The main property of wool fabrics is the ability to retain heat. The disadvantages are the increased dust holding capacity, the accumulation of static electricity, difficulties in cutting and sewing products, demanding care. p>
The main classification of wool fabrics is carried out according to the type of yarn used and the method of manufacture. Wool materials are divided into the following main types: p> Worsted. Produced from combed yarn. Weave pattern - open. This is a rather thin fabric obtained by linen, twill, crepe, jacquard weaves. The worsted group is divided into three subgroups: dress (crepes), costume (Cheviot, tights, boston, crepes) and coat (gabardines, coverots). Fine-toned. Fabric production is carried out from thin hardware yarn. This is a fabric with a nap that covers the weave pattern. Apply plain, twill, small patterned and multi-layer weave. This subgroup includes dress, costume, and coat fabrics (drapes, cloth). In the people of thin materials called cloth scar. Density of fabric makes draping and cutting difficult. Grubber Made of thick hardware yarn. Most often it is loose, dense and coarse fabric. Used for sewing workwear. Linen subgroup
Linen fabrics have high strength, hygroscopicity, thermal conductivity and wear resistance. Disadvantages - crushing and difficulty with finishing. Flax is used for the manufacture of bed and table linen, summer clothes. p>
By appointment flax is divided into household and technical fabrics. Technical materials include the manufacture of bags, packaging, canvases and covers. Domestic materials are divided into the following types: p> Dress-suit. They are made mostly semi-linen. They are produced in plain, small-patterned or combined weaves. Linen. Used for the manufacture of underwear, bed linen and table linen. The main types of weaves - jacquard, plain and combined. Furniture and decorative. Portyerny and furniture fabrics of difficult interlacings. In most cases, it is dense matter with a textured surface (geometric, fancy patterns or hem). Towel. These include jacquard, waffle, terry and satin towels. Special. Thick woven plain weave, further reinforced on the base.
The name of linen fabric often echoes cotton and silk materials. In assortment: batiste, tic, coarse calico, gobelin, gunning, fine linen and others. p> Of mixed and synthetic raw materials
Woven materials are often made by combining different types of fibers. Light industry manufactures fabrics from a mixture of natural and artificial fibers. p>
The manufacture of silk fabrics in most cases involves the addition of chemical fibers to natural raw materials. In addition, cotton, wool, viscose, capron, polyester, acetate and triacetate fibers, polypropylene and many others are used for the manufacture of various variants of silk. p>
When choosing a material it is necessary to take into account that the use of artificial fibers gives a more rigid, dense and heavy silk. It is favorably distinguished from natural fabric by its great durability, light drape and durability. Disadvantages - strong crushing and susceptibility to shrinkage. p>
Synthetic silk is a light fabric that does not crease, does not shrink, does not require special care, and keeps its shape well. But artificial silk badly absorbs and evaporates moisture, it is difficult to cut and sew. p>
Cotton is combined with artificial fibers to produce a material with higher consumer properties. To natural raw materials add lavsan, capron, viscose, siblon and others. Suit and coat fabrics are often made from combined fibers. They are woven in linen, twill and diagonal weaves. The surface is dense, relief, ribbed or cell. Their range is very wide: jeans, reps, twill, diagonal, moleskin, cloth, suede, etc. p>
Wool blend fabrics are produced with the addition of cotton, flax, viscose, nylon, lavsan, nitron, polypropylene fibers. This allows you to get a material of high wear resistance and thermal protection. Chemical fibers are responsible for the refined appearance and antistatic effect. p>
Flax is combined with chemical fibers to eliminate stiffness, reduce crushability and shrinkage, improve drapability. Apply viscose, polyester, capron. Pure flax is a rather coarse fabric, so cotton is often added to the yarn to soften it. p>
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