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Date: 11.10.2018, 15:50 / View: 92383

Concrete do-it-yourself How to make strong concrete (concrete solution) with your own hands.

Mortars and concretes are stone materials of artificial origin, which are obtained as a result of the mixing of the binder (usually lime and Portland cement) and certain aggregates. The binder, when mixed with water, forms a stone-like body, which is explained by the processes of setting and rapid hardening. The strength of the stone-like body is provided by a filler (gravel, crushed stone, sand). Then I will tell you about all the stages of the question, how to make concrete with your own hands.

Components for the manufacture of the solution

1. The placeholder

For mortar, most often, fine sand or other fine aggregate is taken. For a concrete solution, you can take not only fine sand, but also coarse gravel or crushed stone. To make construction plaster or masonry mortar, it is best to use fine sand, the grains of which do not exceed 2 millimeters in diameter. If the plaster will have a special texture, it is possible to add sand with grain up to 4 millimeters. In our market, buyers are offered two types of sand: river and ravine. River sand is considered medium-grained, it is quite expensive, but its purity contributes to its use as a component for concrete mix. Gully sand can be fine-grained (from 0.5 to 1.5 millimeters), with a large number of clay particles and other impurities. It is not suitable for good and durable concrete, but for mortar it can be used without fear.

For lean (light) cement concrete with strength class B7.5, only sand can be used as a filler. In concrete of greater strength, in addition to sand, crushed stone or gravel with a diameter of up to 31.5 millimeters can also be used. The use of macadam mixture of different fractions is considered correct, so that the ready-made concrete contains the minimum number of voids between the pebbles.

Attention! In the aggregate of concrete and mortars there should be no pollutants such as soil, glass, pieces of wood, peat, plants, silt or silt. If contaminants are present, they must be removed by sieving gravel or sand through a sieve.

2. Cement

Cement is a common name for binding powdered substances based on marl, calcareous and clay rocks and all sorts of additives. The most commonly used type of cement is Portland cement, which was named after the British peninsula Portland. Such cement contains a large amount of calcium silicates. During the construction of a country house can be used two types of Portland cement.

Type I - does not contain additives, or their content does not exceed 5 percent. The European classification for such cement indicates the name CEM I.

Type II - the content of additives from 6 to 35 percent. The European classification for such cement indicates the name CEM II.

In Russian practice, the presence of cement additives is indicated by the letter D and a number in the marking code that follows the mark. For example, if you see the labeling of the PC 500-D20, it means the presence of 20 percent of additives in the 500th mark in Portland cement. As we already found out, it characterizes type II cement. As for the designation of DO, it characterizes type I cement, that is, the material without additives.

To prepare the plaster and masonry mortar, you need to take cement classes M400 (32.5) and M500 (42.5). Portland cement is ideal for the preparation of concrete mixtures that will be used at low temperatures (daily average below 10 degrees Celsius). If the temperature is high, for example, during heat, then it is better to use slag Portland cement or cement type III (European classification indicates the name CEM III). It is well suited for the manufacture of masonry and plaster solutions used for fencing and floors.

Attention! Cement can only be bought in bags with appropriate labeling. Immediately before the purchase, it is necessary to check whether the cement has not become damp or cracked. If there are all signs, the purchase is recommended to refuse. To ensure compliance with the brand of cement declared on the packaging or on the bag can only be verified by a reputable manufacturer who has been selling the mortar for years now. By the way, The main difference between a good manufacturer and the underground is not the cost of ready-mixed concrete, but the availability of a quality delivery service.

Cement consumption per 1 m3

3. Lime

Lime is required for the manufacture of cement-lime mortars. In addition, it is used to improve the workability of the solution. To date, for the preparation of solutions to extinguish lime is no longer required. Instead, you can buy slaked lime (hydrated) lime, which is sold in bags ready for sale at a low price. Alternatively, instead of a dry mix, lime can be sold in buckets in the form of lime paste. It is added to cement-lime plaster and masonry mortars to improve their workability.

Attention! If you have decided to use lime as part of the question of how to make concrete at home, use extreme caution, because lime has strong corrosive properties. It is recommended to carry out the work in protective gloves, not forgetting to ensure that the material does not get into the eyes or on the skin. The same applies to the use of dyes, as well as subsequent work on grinding and polishing the product.

4. Additives

The composition of the concrete mix or mortar may include certain additives, which can both improve and simply change their specific properties.

Plasticizers or plasticizing agents can increase the fluidity of the mixture, as a result of which builders get a solution in a more liquid consistency. This solution is much easier to apply.
Thinners or superplasticizers can reduce the amount of water poured for stirring.

In addition, their use allows to improve the machinability of the mixture, increase the strength, frost resistance and water resistance of the mortar or concrete.

Separate additives can accelerate the hardening of the concrete mix or mortar.

Also, there are additives with which it becomes possible to work in the temperature range from 10 degrees of frost to 35 degrees of heat.

On sale there are special additives that slow down the hardening of the concrete mix, which is useful when concreting in hot conditions.

Air entraining or aerating additives increase the frost resistance and reduce the moisture content of the solution in the hardened state.

As a rule, additives are sold in plastic packaging in liquid form. On the packages must be indicated information about the dosage, quantity and basic properties. Additives in mass ratio should not exceed 2 percent of the total mass of cement.

More on concrete additives

5. Water

The quality of water used for mortars and concretes is regulated by GOST standards. In particular, water must meet drinking standards and must not contain third-party impurities, including sugars, oils, alkalis, and acids. Do not use poorly cleaned swamp and wastewater. It is better to follow the principle that you can use any water that you can drink to stir the solution. If you prepare a concrete solution using water from a lake or from a river, you will have to check the suitability of such water in a special construction laboratory.

Composition and proportions

Before you start to consider the question of how to prepare concrete or reinforced concrete, I emphasize that the composition and proportions will directly depend on its main purpose. That is, for the foundation to properly use strong concrete of high density, whereas for the filling of the fence you can stay on lighter brands. Once you have decided on the components, select the correct brand. In most cases, for imported concrete and self-made solutions, it is better to choose brands M300 or M400. As for the proportions, the components "cement / sand / crushed stone" should be used in proportions 1/3/5. This means that on a cube of concrete one part of cement requires the addition of three parts of sand and five parts of crushed stone or gravel. If we talk about water, then its amount should be half the weight of other aggregates. For example, if you get 100 kilograms of dry mix, then you need to take 50 liters of water.

If you get too thick (dense) mixture, you can add some more water. The consistency should be such that you do not need make great efforts to stir the solution with a shovel. For wet sand water should be less. If work is carried out in the cold, water and concrete should be heated, which will protect the composition from premature setting and loss of strength. For work it is better to use a commercial mixer or devices / mixers and containers created by yourself. Of what material and what components they consist (pumps, forms, vibrating rails, etc.), you can read in another article.

How to make concrete with your own hands?

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